Wine is one of the oldest beverages known. They have found remains of vines in the Caucasus, which are older than 7000 years !. Tradition and history of ancient writings tell us about wine and the scenery and wineries, reflecting its history, or the same wine sayings that are part of common knowledge.
The grape is a fruit with a natural tendency to ferment, so the wine was probably the first alcoholic drink known to man. The discovery came by accident could occur when someone left forgotten in a bowl grapes, fermented and then someone they tested the resulting broth. In addition, the grapevine has a great ability to adapt, a factor that certainly helped in its expansion.
The origin of the wine is in the vitis vinifera, which is divided 3 types: sultanas (seedless), Corinthian (also seeded) and vitis occidentalis, predecessor of the grapes to make wine we know today.
The oldest reference about wine seems to belong to the Old Testament, when "Noah began to till the land, and planted a vineyard; He drank wine and became drunk "(Genesis 9-21). This reference marks the presence of wine in the Judeo-Christian tradition from the earliest times. In the Bible it is mentioned over 200 times (in some of the quotes, also called for moderation in consumption ...), which is a sign of its great importance in all cultures of the area: Babylon, Egypt, Sumer , etc. Later, it adopts a key role in the Christian ritual.
In the classical world wine he has also always had a privileged place. In Greece and Rome gods of wine were revered for their intoxicating and aphrodisiac powers. Homer described some of the wines grown in northern Greece with Muscat grapes as "sweet as honey" parties and orgies in honor of the gods, in which abundant wine, delicacies and sexual pleasures were organized. The wine was associated in the classical world with love and carnal enjoyment, but also tranquility, relaxation and relief.
In all civilizations in which it has been present, the wine has been introduced in integrating culture between the values of it. Also, wine has also been a form of cultural expansion: the Romans planted vineyards throughout Mediterranean Europe. There is a legend of how Dionysus conquered Asia to India with an army of musicians and dancers who danced and offered wine ... it can be interpreted as a mythological allegory of cultural power of wine.
In ancient Egypt wine jars found with label, ie the name of the producer, the vineyard and the registered year. This fact tells us that concern for the quality of wine is long ...
The Romans also showed great interest in wine quality and to define what were the best vineyards. We see here an origin of climate association + ground as usual in the standards of quality for wine in the Old World
After the fall of the Roman Empire, in Europe the development of viticulture and oenology were given by Christian monks, who put a lot of effort to improve all systems of winemaking, drawing on the legacy of Roman vineyards . It is no coincidence that regions with more wine tradition in Europe, are also often those with the highest concentration of monasteries and religious sites. We can see even today as many wineries (some very recent) turn to Latin names for their wines, or used commercially or rehabilitate old buildings, monasteries and abbeys, located among the vineyards.
France, Italy and Spain are the largest producers and exporters of wine from the Middle Ages. For medieval man the wine was a product of regular use and even necessary, as it were as caloric intake, as it were so that the alcoholic strength to preserve and help remove some bacteria.
As cities grew and increased the wealth of the bourgeoisie began to grow demand for higher quality wines. Bordeaux was the first region where the ancestral concern for the quality of vineyards led to a system definition Grand Cru, in the s. XVIII. The wine trade that expands and its history is divided between large production houses highly sought after and demanded to look at the best tables wines and wines in bulk, often neglected, served in any form, anywhere .
In the second half of s. XIX exported phylloxera devastated the vineyards of North America Europe, creating a deep crisis in the wine sector. The solution also came from the new world, grafting the European vines at the foot of an American-resistant plague, which kept its original properties vineyard was achieved. Today, virtually all European vines are grafted onto feet Americans.
Along with pests, the two world wars represented another obstacle to the growth of viticulture in Europe, which could no longer supply the world market as before. The impact of the war in wine has an obvious case of Hungarian Tokay. If a defendant to be served wine in royal houses became forgotten in the trunk of history
The origin of the wine in the New World began the most often at the hands of winemakers and grape growers who migrated to other continent. Today, the wines of the new world (America, Africa, Australia and New Zealand) have improved their quality, conquered international markets and compete with the most reputable European wines. Some of these areas have been exploited considerably around the wine tourism with wine trails and wine tours that invite travelers to know the wines of these areas.
In Spain, La Rioja and its wineries confirm a landmark in the production of wine. It was the first Spanish region where they began bottling the wine, around the century. XIX. With the bottling, the wine consumer step transported in bulk in barrels to higher quality wines defined. In other Spanish regions, oenological practices have not been refined until relatively recently, but today we can find a wide range of quality wines very characteristic of our country.