The global wine sector has an important economic value constituting a significant percentage of the total food market.
This economic importance is even greater in the developed, where in many cases the wines and derivatives world, before foods are quasi luxury items.
In fact the high alcohol drinks are taxed by excise industrial value multiplied several times until purchased by the final consumer.
Moreover, in the value chain of wine and its derivatives, involving different business and / or professional figures with multiple attitudes and interests.
All these circumstances make vinous products are likely to incite fraudulent practices. It is estimated that 30% of the bottles in Europe and up to 70% in China are of questionable nature.
So the world of wine and alcoholic beverages, often associated with glamor and the party also has its dark side.
One of the first historical accounts of fraud consequences originated in Porto.
In 1703 the Trade Treaty of Methuen guaranteed return for similar treatment for British textiles, port wines to best tariff conditions as wines produced in France. This, with the resulting increase in demands culminated in 1754 with the refusal of the English merchants to import Oporto as a result of the repeated cases of counterfeit wine using elderberry for flavoring them.
The dispute was settled with taking two steps to my dire judgment: First of all logging elderberry is ordered, tree characteristic of the area, in the region of Porto, as later spread throughout North Portugal. Subsequently, apart from several regulatory measures, in 1756 it is created the "Companhia General of Agriculture" The vinhas Alto Douro "may be considered as the first Regulatory Council.
Another historical episode of fraud relevant socio-economic consequences linked to the spirits can be found in the twenties in the United States with the enactment of Prohibition that led to one of the most shameful episodes in the history of mankind. As is known, around alcohol and illegal sale all criminal activity was organized with the emergence of mafias, of course, primarily Italian, who came to convulse society of large American cities. So that the big bosses, famous was Al Capone, they controlled the economy and lifestyle of the citizens and all this stemmed from something as expendable, or not, for man as alcohol.
The network is not immune to this problem, a curiosity, since there is a website (www.wineauthentification.com) created by the collector Russell Fyre where information is offered to try to distinguish counterfeit wine collection.
Today fraud wine and derivatives continues to exist and all this despite the food sector is specially regulated, if not intervened, from an analytical point of view (Methods OIV) and tax (excise duties, controls DO).
In an attempt to classify the nature of the most common fraud in the sector we can be distinguished:
- Product fraud.
- Fraud origin.
- Fiscal fraud.
- Technological fraud.
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